James Clerk Maxwell based his concept on electromagnetism on Michael Faraday’s version saying that electromagnetic fields are the mediators of the interaction between material objects. A world view in which a mutual force and interaction taking place between two distant things is oftentimes called “action at a distance” without any means other than the objects themselves and the empty space between them. This is the essence of field theory, and Classical electromagnetism was the first field theory. Why interacting objects attract or repel has opened up more and more fields that describe the particle world and we start to wonder, “Is electromagnetism the only thing responsible for actions between distances?”
According to Quantum physics, fundamental forces are held or “mediated” by force-carrying particles. For example, when two electrons interact via the force of electromagnetism, they do so by exchanging photons. Electromagnetic interaction between particles has three forms: forces within atoms, forces between atoms, and electromagnetic fields and waves.
Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics describe “forces within atoms”, like how electrons bind with an atom’s nucleus.
The field of Chemistry deals with “forces between atoms”, an energy change because electrons and atoms reposition themselves as material upon contacting itself or another material.
“Electromagnetic Fields and Waves” is responsible for electric or magnetic fields, and electromagnetic waves that travel (light, x-rays, microwaves, and such). All these forms of waves are basically the same, differing only by wavelength.
An electromagnetic wave must carry one or more whole units of energy called quanta (never arbitrary amounts). Thus a single photon is an electromagnetic wave carrying one quantum of energy. Electromagnetic radiation is often described by its frequency- a higher frequency means a more energetic photon. Electrons will only absorb or emit photons of specific frequencies to perform a quantum leap.
What we usually perceive of negative-positive, south-north sides is a Classical Electromagnetism we enjoy in the macroworld. However, we can’t even classify such mechanism with the particle activities going on in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Electrodynamics. The world may have successfully taken advantage of the classical Coulumb but the truth is, electromagnetism as a whole is more than any materialistic accounts.
Since the central idea of quantum theory is a duality between particle-like and wave-like (or field-like) behavior, electromagnetism could be combined with quantum theory to create a fully quantum model known as Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). This gives a reason why Classical Electromagnetism cannot be classified in the nature of QED because charges and electromagnetic fields n QED are determined in discrete patterns of quanta. In other words, Maxwell’s equations are inadequate to describe the phenomena of radiation. Quantum Physics as a whole, views electromagnetic radiation as a form of both a wave and a particle.